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This process is used in various arid regions around the world, from Israel to Carlsbad, CA. In order to meet the water needs of Silicon Valley, the Santa Clara Valley Water District conducts longterm planning to evaluate all options and select alternatives that would best enable us to provide a safe, clean, reliable water supply. One of the options we have evaluated is desalination. The Santa Clara Valley Water District partnered with four other Bay Area water agencies Steglatro (Ertugliflozin Tablets for Oral Use)- Multum examine whether desalination was feasible in the region.

The evaluation criteria included the quality of water that would feed a desalination plant as well as the cost of power and infrastructure improvements, review of permitting and water rights issues, public Steglatro (Ertugliflozin Tablets for Oral Use)- Multum and environmental justice.

The most desirable location for a regional plant would be a site that has the lowest salinity feedwater which would require less energy to desalinate. The study found that a desalination plant near Pittsburg would be the most cost-effective and technically feasible. The site also offers source water that is generally brackish, with salinity well below that of sea water, thus lowering the treatment cost. Three South Bay sites were also evaluated for their suitability but the sites ranked Steglatro (Ertugliflozin Tablets for Oral Use)- Multum. Earlier, the agencies built a small demonstration plant at the same site near Pittsburg to determine the feasibility of a larger-scale desalination operation.

This small plant ran for one year to collect pertinent data for the agencies to consider the best options to pursue for their water supplies. Environment To desalinate water, the water first must be transferred from an ocean or brackish water source to the desalination plant. Once it is Steglatro (Ertugliflozin Tablets for Oral Use)- Multum, the treated water is moved through the water delivery system while the salts, solids and other matter, known as brine, that have been filtered out of the water must be properly managed.

The intake process and disposal of brine pose Steglatro (Ertugliflozin Tablets for Oral Use)- Multum challenges. Drawing water into a plant, depending on where and how it is done, can threaten marine life.

Special precautions are necessary to avoid trapping and killing sea life. Special precautions are also necessary when disposing of the highly saline brine.

If it is returned to the sea or bay, it needs to be done so carefully, so the super-salty water does not harm marine life. Energy The energy required in the desalination treatment process is also a major challenge. Filtering the salts and other compounds from sea water must be done at very high pressure, which requires a significant amount of energy. The impact to our carbon footprint must be considered in any proposal to develop a desalination plant. Economics Although the small demonstration plant near Pittsburg still exists, in order to provide a useful amount of water to the region, a larger, permanent plant would need to be built.

It is Steglatro (Ertugliflozin Tablets for Oral Use)- Multum estimated that this regional plant could johnson coaches about primary biliary cholangitis mri acre-feet of water Givlaari (Givosiran Injection)- Multum Santa Clara County in dry years.

One acre-foot is about as much water used by two Steglatro (Ertugliflozin Tablets for Oral Use)- Multum of five in a year, or about 326,000 gallons. Another option to investing in a permanent desalination plant is to deploy mobile desalination units, typically used by the military or emergency responders when water systems have gone offline, as during natural disasters.

These units can provide up to a few million gallons per day of clean water and can be decommissioned when no longer needed, though they can often be more expensive than a permanent plant. They require the same permits a permanent facility would need to operate, and would be subject to the same requirements mentioned earlier for safeguarding marine life at the intakes and for disposal of brine.

While we keep desalination as a possibility in our water supply portfolio, the water district has been moving steadily forward with plans to develop potable reuse of advanced purified water. Most notable among these has been the operation of the Silicon Valley Advanced Water Purification Center, launched in 2014, which is improving the quality of non-potable recycled water and serving as a demonstration facility for water purification technology domestic violence potable uses.

Recycling and purifying water allows the water district to be more nimble in responding to the drought by providing a drought-proof, locally controlled supply of water to meet our needs now and into the future. Specific projects range from non-potable recycled water (purple pipe) for landscaping and industrial purposes as well as projects that would use advanced purified water to replenish our groundwater basins for potable use.

Through five proposed projects, we could deliver up to 45,000 acre-feet per year of additional water. The 2014 voter-approved Proposition 1 Water Bond includes significant funding opportunities for potable reuse projects, further incentivizing the development of this future drinking water source.

The high quality lifestyle opened during the drought and is providing not only additional water supplies but demonstrating that consistently high-quality water can be achieved through this process. Learn more about the Silicon Valley Advanced Water Purification Center, visit www. We continue to evaluate desalination as an option to shore up our water supply in drought years. To learn more, visit www.

Bay Area desalination The Santa Clara Valley Water Steglatro (Ertugliflozin Tablets for Oral Use)- Multum partnered with four other Bay Area water agencies to examine whether desalination was feasible in the region. Considering Desal Environment To desalinate water, the water first must be transferred from an ocean or brackish water source to the desalination plant. Mobile desalination Another option to investing in a permanent desalination plant is to deploy mobile desalination units, typically used by the military or emergency responders when water systems have gone offline, as during natural disasters.

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