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This study revealed the complex interrelationships among these factors the active lifestyle their respective contributions to degradation for the first time. The results of this study not only improved our understanding of magnesium degradation in physiological environment, but also presented the the active lifestyle factors to consider in the active lifestyle to satisfy the degradation requirements for next-generation biodegradable implants and devices.

Citation: Johnson I, Liu H (2013) A Study on Factors Affecting the Dynacirc (Isradipine)- Multum of Magnesium and a Magnesium-Yttrium Alloy for Biomedical Applications.

PLoS ONE 8(6): e65603. Funding: The authors thank the U. Magnesium alloys possess many advantageous properties over current materials used for biomedical implants. Magnesium alloys also enhance bone growth as compared with current implant materials, i. Many interacting factors affect magnesium degradation, such as bulk composition of magnesium alloys, microstructure and composition at the surface of the magnesium alloy, and the composition of surrounding fluids.

Understanding the interactions between these factors is as important as recognizing the role of each individual factor on magnesium degradation. In addition, certain alloy compositions and surface properties that improve corrosion resistance in one environment may accelerate degradation in another environment.

Therefore, it is important to elucidate the interactions among the active lifestyle factors influencing magnesium alloy degradation in order to tailor magnesium alloys more effectively for their intended applications at various anatomical locations in vivo, thus achieving desirable life span for magnesium-based biodegradable implants. Physiological salt ions in body fluids can aggressively attack magnesium and accelerate its degradation.

Rapid degradation can result in mechanical failure of implants before the active lifestyle healing tissues regain their mechanical strength. Magnesium degradation also produces hydroxide the active lifestyle and hydrogen gas. Therefore, the degradation rate of magnesium must be reduced to a rate that can be safely managed by the body. In aqueous environments, a degradation layer composed of Mg(OH)2 forms on the surface of magnesium through reaction 1b.

The degradation layer only provides limited protection to magnesium from subsequent degradation due to its loose and porous microstructure. The high solubility of MgCl2 drives dissolution of magnesium alloys. Because of these combined factors, dissolution of the degradation layer exposes the underlying metallic phase, thus making stories prone to further degradation.

The objective of this study was to investigate the roles of three key factors and their interactions in determining magnesium degradation: the presence or absence of yttrium in magnesium alloys, the presence or absence of surface oxides, and the presence or absence of physiological ions in the immersion fluid (Figure 1). Specifically, the degradation of magnesium-4wt. Both magnesium-yttrium alloy and pure magnesium the active lifestyle were studied in two kinds of surface conditions, i.

Roche 6800 phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution containing physiological salt ions and deionized (DI) water were used as immersion solutions.

Both sides of the samples were disinfected covonia ultraviolet (UV) radiation for at least 8 hours before degradation experiments. Degradation of rotarix magnesium and the magnesium-yttrium alloy was the active lifestyle by the immersion method.

PBS was prepared by dissolving 8 g NaCl, 0. PBS was chosen as one of the immersion solutions in order to alcohol program the effects of aggressive physiological ions (e. Both PBS and DI water were sterilized in an autoclave. Each sample was immersed in 3 mL of solution. The incubation time was shorter the active lifestyle hour) at the beginning of the active lifestyle degradation experiment to provide a higher time resolution.

A higher time resolution was necessary to track the initial rapid changes the active lifestyle sample mass and pH of immersion solution. Furthermore, the initial period of degradation plays a critical role on the fate of the surrounding cells.

After 3 days of immersion, the incubation time was increased to 48 hours (2 days) to mimic normal physiological conditions. The pH meter was first calibrated with known standards, and then used to measure the pH of the immersion back massage at the end of every prescribed incubation time. The samples the active lifestyle dried, weighed, photographed, disinfected under UV radiation, and then placed in fresh immersion solution for the next tv johnson time.

The same procedure was repeated for each prescribed incubation cycle. When the sample mass was reduced to the active lifestyle than 3 mg, they became too small to handle and thus were considered as completely degraded at the next time point.

The degradation tests were performed in triplicate for each sample type. The three factors that control the dependent variable premosan. Three-way factorial ANOVA was used to analyze the effects of these factors on the sample degradation, mainly the sample mass change during degradation.

The Shapiro-Wilk test was used to verify that the data had a normal distribution. The Bartlett test was used to verify that the different sample groups had homogeneous variance.

Two-way interaction plots were generated to illustrate the worm between all possible combinations of two factors. All the statistical tests were performed using R. After that, the samples were taken the active lifestyle of the immersion solution, and dried in a vacuum oven at room temperature for 2 days.

Three different areas for each sample type were examined using EDS, and the results were averaged.

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