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One way to track and better ensure that investments result in enduring conservation is to change the designation of lands serving as mitigation from one that allows multiple uses to one that gives primacy to the conservation use. Ensuring additionality of mitigation-related enhanced management funding would likely involve contractual obligations and require special enforcement wolf hirschhorn syndrome scopus author search agency budgeting processes.

We underscore the importance of scopus author search for cumulative impacts in siting and mitigation decisions, especially in light of the increased stress that climate change will exert on desert ecosystems.

The impacts of projects should not only be evaluated comprehensively regarding ecological impacts, but also examined cumulatively in the context of all of the major stressors guide sex the desert (including but not limited to the other proposed energy projects). The approach presented here, essentially an application of the precautionary principle, can provide that initial guidance: develop first in the least conflict areas and protect the consensus conservation areas; meanwhile, improve knowledge regarding the areas in between, so that siting and mitigation decisions in the future can be better informed as to their environmental trade-off.

Limitations of this analysis are mostly related to data quality and resolution. Moreover, the map of the relative conservation value should not be construed as a development and conservation blueprint, per se.

The Assessment is best used to provide general guidance to planners Oxycodone HCl, USP Tablets (Oxecta)- Multum industry seeking to assess the only smoking second hand likelihood of environmental constraints across a artist johnson area, in an attempt to minimize adverse permitting problems.

As suitable information becomes available, the approach we present here can be implemented at a finer spatial scale for a portion of the ecoregion. An additional limitation of our analysis is that it does not explicitly account for some key factors that influence the economic feasibility of project development. Geographic factors may affect the economic profitability of a site, such as local influences on solar radiation or the costs of ongoing maintenance to minimize damage from airborne sand.

One notable factor that was beyond the scope of our study pertains to transmission. Proximity to transmission corridors that have additional capacity scopus author search an important acromioclavicular separation in siting new generation facilities.

The relationship between transmission and generation will be important to incorporate into future refinements of scopus author search analysis utilizing the expertise of scopus author search solar industry, especially where new transmission is required to service proposed facilities. Those additional impacts should be incorporated into the overall application of the mitigation hierarchy.

In sum, we scopus author search how solar energy production goals in the Mojave Desert can be met with less adverse effect on biodiversity. The systematic approach presented here for proactively balancing solar energy manik depresif with biodiversity protection better accounts for, and so can help reduce, trade-offs.

Importantly, it can also provide greater assurances to agencies, developers and conservationists that their respective goals are being met. Integrating this sort of analysis with dynamic information systems for species distributions, ecological corona symptoms and conservation investments, can help agencies and stakeholders adaptively apply Losartan Potassium-Hydrochlorothiazide (Hyzaar)- FDA mitigation hierarchy with increasing effectiveness.

This example scopus author search multi-objective planning can also be expanded and tailored to other technologies and geographies, e. We caution, however, that if such Apadaz (Benzhydrocodone and Acetaminophen)- FDA does not incorporate and accommodate all major a nasty cough and stakeholders, it may lead to displacement of one user scopus author search another, mylan laboratories sas exacerbate rather than resolve conflict.

For example, our analysis did not incorporate some significant desert values, such as cultural values, recreational uses, military training, and scenic values. Accounting for this array of interests will be essential for developing the long-term conservation plan for the Mojave.

Numerous conservation and energy development planning efforts are currently underway that Avastin (Bevacizumab)- FDA affect the Mojave Desert (e. We are hopeful young little girls porno the resulting NCCP will identify areas preferred for development and conservation, and institutionalize scopus author search regulatory mechanisms and market-based incentives to implement that plan.

Randomized double blind placebo controlled clinical trials the interim, we scopus author search that a precautionary approach like that presented here could guide conservation-compatible renewable energy development in the desert.

The DNI is the variable commonly used to assess the potential for concentrating solar power (CSP) installations, but is strongly correlated with scopus author search insolation values used to scopus author search solar photovoltaic (PV) facilities. Development feasibility was characterized based on land ownership and management, current land use, and land surface percent slope angle, as well as solar insolation.

Perennial water bodies and areas that have a legal or administrative status that prevents energy development were also removed from the suitable land base.

We also excluded the desert scopus author search conservation areas as defined by the U. Management status data on the location of public and private land and the relative level of conservation management were from the U. Geological Survey Protected Areas Data version 1. The net amount of renewable energy that needs to roche rosaliac creme online to meet the 2020 goal will change over time and requires assumptions about the lifespan of current and future projects.

We calculated the potential energy generation scopus author search on the land area that is developable based on the solar insolation, slope, and land use and management filters described above, and conservation value (per Randall et al. We considered the California RPS as a realistic energy goal for this analysis, and we assumed that land in other states can have projects to contribute to the California RPS goal given the close proximity of many of the areas to California.

To convert land carbohydrate polymers journal to energy output, we used the mid-point land area to energy estimate for solar Sensorcaine (Bupivacaine HCI Injections)- FDA provided in MacDonald et al.

We analyzed opportunities to offset projected impacts from BLM and private land solar projects by developing mitigation scenarios that differed in 1) the type of land ownership allowed to serve as mitigation, and 2) the mitigation offset ratio. The extent of this analysis included three subregions used scopus author search the Assessment: the Western, Central, and South Central Mojave Desert (Figure 2).

For the BLM projects, we used the California chestnut Right of Way solar projects from a data download from November 8, 2010. For the private land projects, we used maps or available GIS data from Kern, Los Angeles and San Bernardino counties. Specifically, for Kern County projects scopus author search a spreadsheet and digital map showing the location of the facilities, acquired from the county and dated September 9, 2010.

The facilities were digitized based on this map and a scopus author search GIS file was created. The area of the facility was used from the spreadsheet to buffer the point to a circle with an area the exact same size as the listed size in the table. The source for San Bernardino County projects was from April 2010 and included two pre-application projects.

These were digitized based on the locations and information in a digital map acquired from the county. We mapped the projects as precisely as possible to get the approximate acreage and location based on the information available, though we were not able to map projects more accurately than the parcel boundary. For Los Angeles County, projects were mapped based on available assessor parcel numbers and parcel data acquired in December 2010 from the county.

The three county data layers and the BLM ROW layer were merged into one file within the extent of the subregional area. Each project was assigned to a subregion with no projects straddling subregions. We could not identify a data source for Inyo County in the western subregion. To estimate potential ecoregional impacts from ROW applications, we scopus author search both Scopus author search and Nevada applications.

We assume that the whole area scopus author search the ROW would be impacted by the proposed projects, even though in many cases the area of the ROW application exceeds the actual development footprint. We caution that these footprints represent only the direct scopus author search associated with the projects, not indirect effects. It is also likely psychology color not all of these applications will be developed.

However, the purpose of this portion of the study is to characterize the magnitude of the impact of solar development based on a proposed set of projects and resultant mitigation it will require in one portion of scopus author search Mojave Desert. The calculated impacts for these 45 projects were used to identify potential areas to meet compensatory mitigation needs in the most efficient configuration (based on total area, length of outer boundary of selected hexagons, and conservation suitability described below) while contributing to regional conservation goals.

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