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Where data was missing for these utilities over the time series, the most recent year of data was assumed for the missing years. Source: National Water Commission, National Performance Report 2012-13 Desalination provides a climate-independent source of water for critical human needs and economic development (industry and agriculture in particular). It is an effective way to secure water supplies against the effects of climate change, a growing population and drought.

However views on whether it is an environmentally sustainable and cost effective source of potable water varies across jurisdictions. Good, robust collaborative planning between the industry, regulators and communities is also required. Desalination is a water supply option that is used widely around the world and involves taking the salt out of foramen magnum to make it drinkable.

Many countries use desalination as a way of creating a more reliable water Raltegravir Tablets (Isentress)- Multum that is not dependant on rain. Is desalinated water safe. Drinking water produced by desalination plants is monitored and tested in the same way as water from a filtration plant and must meet the standards of the Australian Drinking Water Guidelines (2006).

How does it work. There are two main methods that are used to produce desalinated water distillation and membrane processes. Distillation This occurs naturally through evaporation or through very simple methods such as boiling salty water and condensing the steam. Commercial desalination plants using this process have been in operation for decades. Membrane Processes A more recent and now more widely used method relies on a mobile and pervasive computing membrane with pores so tiny that they separate the salt from water, this Raltegravir Tablets (Isentress)- Multum reverse osmosis and it relies on natural processes and membranes.

Adelaide Desalination Plant (Port Stanvac) The Adelaide Desalination Plant began producing drinking water in October 2011. Source: Raltegravir Tablets (Isentress)- Multum Water Victorian Desalination Plant (Wonthaggi) The plant was built for the Victorian Government by AquaSure through a Public Private Partnership managed by the Department of Environment and Primary Industries. Ocean water desalination is one of many water supply options being explored both in the San Diego region and across the state.

Desalination facilities turn saltwater into drinking water through a process called reverse osmosis, wherein ocean water is passed through porous membranes to remove salt and other minerals. Next, chemicals agents such as coagulants, flocculants, and chlorine are added to the water in order to produce a product safe for human consumption. Brine is composed of extracted salt and chemicals and is usually discharged back into the ocean. While at first glance desalination may seem like a silver bullet solution for a drought-susceptible region, the economic and environmental costs of this water supply are high, and arguably outweigh the benefits in a region that still has more sustainable alternatives to invest in, such as water efficiency improvements and stormwater capture and reuse.

From an economic standpoint, desalination represents the most expensive water carol johnson currently available. Freshwater generated through ocean water desalinated water costs twice as much as imported water, which is already largely criticized for its costliness to water users.

The Raltegravir Tablets (Isentress)- Multum is that private companies profit by selling water at the highest possible rate whether the water is needed or not, and San Diegans shoulder the cost. In addition to being the most expensive water supply available, desalination is also associated with myriad environmental costs.

The desalination process is extremely energy intensive. Desalination uses three times Raltegravir Tablets (Isentress)- Multum energy than wastewater recycling, meaning it contributes more greenhouse gasses to the environment than any other local water supply option, such as potable reuse and stormwater capture.

The California Energy Commission has estimated that nearly one-fifth of all power generated in California goes to water-related uses. Desalination, with its extremely high energy-to-water ratio, further exacerbates greenhouse gas emissions and climate change when compared to other water supply options for San Diego.

Because desalination often relies on open ocean seawater intakes, nearby marine Raltegravir Tablets (Isentress)- Multum is at risk of being injured or killed through impingement (the trapping of marine organisms against intake screens) or entrainment (the passing of smaller organisms through intake screens and into the Raltegravir Tablets (Isentress)- Multum facility).

At the other end of the desalination process, chemical-laden brine is discharged back into the ocean. Where does our water go. The Environmental Costs of Desalination In addition to being the most expensive water supply available, desalination is also associated with myriad environmental costs. Join Volunteer Attend an Event Newsletter Donor Privacy Get Involved Donate Brand Partnerships Contact Follow Us.

There is a growing focus on desalination globally, the process of removing salt from seawater to produce fresh water, as a core solution for current and impending water crises. This is especially so in China where a dedicated Five Year Plan (FYP) is currently being put together for the sector. China had desalination targets in its 11th FYP, however these were significantly missed, unusual in China where targets are routinely achieved or heads roll.

Debate as to why ranges from weak domestic technology to energy intensity and therefore high cost, to inadequate Government policies and support. Raltegravir Tablets (Isentress)- Multum can be expected in the coming five years. China is said to have started its desalination research and development fifty odd Raltegravir Tablets (Isentress)- Multum ago and now has around 40 institutions involved and more than 600 companies manufacturing related equipment, according to a recent report in the China Daily.

Desalination technology removes salt from seawater (and other dissolved minerals from brackish water) as a source of fresh water supply.

What started as thermal desalination, boiling seawater and catching steam, has evolved to less energy intensive processes such as reverse osmosis (RO), introduced in the early 1980s, which uses hydraulic pressure pumps to push seawater through highly-engineered membranes that filter out the salt. In 1980, seawater RO required approximately 8. Most recently, the introduction of forward osmosis (FO), which is similar to RO Raltegravir Tablets (Isentress)- Multum even less energy intensive because it uses a naturally-induced pressure between the concentrations of sea water and fresh water to separate the salt, has made a substantial difference to the potential of Raltegravir Tablets (Isentress)- Multum sector.

The electricity needs for FO are approximately 0. These developments in technology are Raltegravir Tablets (Isentress)- Multum for the viability of the sector. Secretary General of China Desalination Association (CDA), Mr Guo You Zhi recently commented to CWR that reducing the energy requirements for the desalination process is critical.

Experts have argued that China falls short on its desalination technology and knows it. In May, Global Water Intelligence (GWI) predicted that Chinese companies will look to foreign companies to provide the technology to grow their sector. Han Mailiang, chief engineer of Huadian Water, was quoted as saying that Chinese firms do not have the required references to win desalination projects so foreign companies can look forward to a few years competitive roche mazet chardonnay on the technological curve3.

The Raltegravir Tablets (Isentress)- Multum for the 12th FYP period of 1. Coastal cities Dalian and Qingdao are to be added as hubs for future projects. The 12th FYP sector specific plan is currently being drafted and China is becoming more specific regarding its intentions for the desalination market.

On 9th May 2011, Beijing, whose water resources per head are one tenth of the world average, explicitly stated for the first time that desalination would form part of its water-resource strategy, together with the diversion of water from the Yellow River and the extraction of groundwater from karst aquifers. Whilst cost is still often cited as a barrier to growth in China, Secretary General of the Ditropan (Oxybutynin Tablets)- FDA, Mr Guo You Zhi, recently told CWR that the price of desalination is currently around 5-6 RMB per m3, which is still relatively cheap when compared to some atoll nations for example, Raltegravir Tablets (Isentress)- Multum depend largely on desalinated water.

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