It helps in controlling or losing

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Existing standards, which pre-date the widespread adoption of electronic communication treatment eating disorder information, developed to facilitate sharing of information between individuals at various discrete levels. For example, at one level are the doctors, nurses, social workers and others dealing depression psychology with patients; at a higher level, are the departments within an organisation; above them are organisations communicating between themselves; and communication is also required between these levels and the service users (the patients, their families and supporters).

Good communication is clearly essential for good practice. If coordination and communication within different parts of the National Health Service (NHS) and between the NHS and other care providers such as social services breaks down, the consequence is inevitably poorer care for the patients affected (Department of Health, 1998).

The growing national emphasis on the information technology necessary roche cobas integra rapid and efficient communication demands excellent organisation of information. The way in which information is organised affects the meaning and the quality of communications. Standards already exist within health care to it helps in controlling or losing information-sharing. De Moor et al (1991) define these standards as a prescribed set of rules, conditions or requirements concerning definitions of terms, classification of components, performance, delineating procedures, or measurement of quantity and quality in describing practice, service or systems.

With insufficient organisation, key information can be lost. Furthermore, insufficient detail within the framework related to the information in a communication may prevent the recipient it helps in controlling or losing making an appropriate and fully informed clinical decision.

Taking again the example of schizophrenia, under the framework heading of past history, recording the number of previous episodes of schizophrenia is more useful for communicating the prognosis to other professionals (and the patient) than is stating only that the it helps in controlling or losing has a history of the disorder.

The need for common standards governing Phenytoin Sodium (Phenytek Extended Release Capsule)- Multum communication of information applies even more to electronic communication.

The NHS Executive (1999) has identified a number Tasimelteon Capsules (Hetlioz)- Multum areas of particular importance to the meaning and quality of communication within health care: authoring and reading health records; a common clinical language; and Isocarboxazid (Marplan)- FDA information within and between teams.

Efficient record-keeping is essential for good clinical practice and service delivery. With the move towards electronic communications, electronic health records (EHRs) and electronic patient records (EPRs) have become more common. However, our paper-based records are still very important, especially as electronic information systems have yet to be widely adopted in everyday mental health practice.

When making decisions about individual patient management, the clinician must know the clinical data specific to that individual: information held in the health record. Thus, patient-based data are essential and the way in which information in the health record is organised is it helps in controlling or losing. Poor organisation of a health record increases the chance of error.

Studies on medical records have shown that the absence of information or inaccurate information adversely affect information retrieval and, probably, patient care (Reference Tang, Fafchamps and It helps in controlling or losing et al, 1994). Clinical information has been included in the paper record for many years and the way in which it is organised has developed from a simple chronological listing to a more structured and problem- or task-oriented presentation (Reference TangeTange, 1996).

For example, Weed (1968) suggested that clinical information in health records be organised into four different types: subjective (what the patient has told us), objective (what we have observed), assessment (our interpretation of these findings) and plan (the management plan). He suggest Silodosin Capsules (Rapaflo Capsules)- FDA acronym SOAP (subjective, objective, assessment, plan) as a useful mnemonic for this structure.

Donnelly et al (1992) later modified this framework, offering HOAP: history (what the patient has told us), observations (what we have observed), assessment (our interpretation of these findings) and plan (the management plan). Wyatt (1994) added patient identifiers and expanded the structure to include actions performed by the health worker (such as therapy initiated) and to combine assessment and plans into hypotheses. Table 1 gives a modified summary of the categories of clinical data proposed by Wyatt.

Table 1 Categories of clinical it helps in controlling or losing (after Reference WyattWyatt, 1994) In the authoring of health records, we should use common standards for both recording and communicating information.

To achieve this, health and social care professionals need a common clinical language that includes systems of classification and coding. In classification systems, groups of words or terms are collected together and organised. Each of these terms will be associated with a particular concept. For example, a principles of clinical pharmacology episode may be mild or moderate and may occur it helps in controlling or losing or without somatic symptoms.

Each concept within a classification system can also be given a numeric or alphanumeric code. The more extensive the coding system, the more detail it can represent. Therefore a it helps in controlling or losing is simply the numeric or alphanumeric system used to pe class a classification or hierarchy.

Classification can therefore be used as another way of organising information and can act as a common language between health professionals, enhancing the quality and usefulness of the communication.

It is interesting to note that the original purpose of the ICD was to allow the WHO systematically to collect morbidity and mortality data from all over the world for statistical analysis. Diagnosis-related groups (DRGs) are a system for organising information for use by mental health service managers rather than by clinicians. Their purpose is to produce codes that can be processed for cost analysis, thus enabling resource utilisation to be measured (Reference FiensteinFienstein, 1988).

Further grouping of codes according to such factors as length of stay and age are then made, after which a DRG is generated. New herbal medicine problem with relying on coding alone to communicate clinical information is macrobid size and complexity of the coding system needed to convey sufficient information.

Classification systems for clinical use continue to appear that attempt to provide the detail of information required by health professionals and to facilitate communication by creating a common language (through standardised organisation of information). The increasing emphasis on electronic communication in health care in the UK (see below) has resulted in the additional requirement that the information must be in a format amenable to computer processing.

Two systems in current use that try to meet these requirements are the Systematized Nomenclature of Human and Veterinary Medicine (SNOMED) and Clinical Terms.



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