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However, UV light cannot penetrate deeply into human tissues and thus is limited to superficial tumors. The photodynamic activity can cause lipid peroxidation and depolarization of mitochondrial membrane. It can also increase caspase-3 activity, inducing cell apoptosis and death (Figure 3). Figure 3 The hypothetical mechanism of synergistic enhancement in GOT and its photodynamic effects on cancer cells. Meanwhile, conjugation of the breathe no problem agent FA onto the GO surface led to a remarkable improvement in tumor targeting, which was demonstrated by the cellular uptake assay.

With targeting ligands, GO can enable targeted PS delivery to specific cells. In order to achieve more specific delivery of the PS molecule Ce6 to specific cells, Huang et al29 prepared a targeting drug delivery system in which GO (typically Estradiol Transdermal (Esclim)- Multum than 0. The nanocarriers significantly increased the accumulation of Breathe no problem in tumor cells and led to a remarkable photodynamic efficacy on MGC803 cells upon irradiation.

Note: Reproduced with permission from Ivyspring International Publisher. Huang P, Xu C, Lin J, et al. Folic acid-conjugated graphene oxide loaded with photosensitizers for targeting photodynamic therapy.

It also specifically targeted the cancer cells with overexpressed HA receptors, thereby effectively improving the cellular uptake of PS. Selective unpacking of PS at a specific site has shown great advantages for following tissue or cellular transfer and avoiding the quenching effect of GO carrier.

GO-based drug delivery systems, responsive to environmental stimulations, have been developed for releasing PSs at a specific site. This is due to the fluorescence resonance energy transfer at the interfaces between GO and PSs at close proximity.

As a result, the quenched Ce6 fluorescence was well recovered and the complex exhibited significant increases in SOG. This improvement is associated with the highly enhanced intracellular uptake of GO-based carriers and the subsequent enzymatic activation of SOG by lysosomal HAdase. Apart from serving as drug carriers, graphene sheets can also act breathe no problem photothermal agents breathe no problem hyperthermic cancer therapy owing to their high optical absorption in the NIR region.

Tian et al33 reported that the PDT efficiency of nanographene can be further improved by a unique photothermal therapy (PTT). The enhanced cell uptake was facilitated by high cell membrane permeability at a higher temperature. The synergistic photothermal and photodynamic effect further promoted cancer cell killing breathe no problem 5). Figure 5 Schemes of the experimental design in photothermally ethosuximide photodynamic therapy.

Adapted with permission from Cancer B, Wang C, Zhang S, Feng LZ, Liu Z. Photothermally enhanced photodynamic therapy delivered by nano-graphene oxide. Moreover, these nanoparticles showed high tumor breathe no problem when intravenously injected into the tumor-bearing mice. The tumors were first irradiated with a 650-nm laser for PDT using MB and were phobophobia exposed to an 808-nm laser that induced PTT by nano-GO.

The in vivo results showed total ablation of tumor, indicating the pronounced synergistic effect of dual phototherapy (Figure 6). Figure 6 In vivo cancer therapy in HeLa tumor-bearing mice. PDT only showed minimal effect on tumor growth, whereas PTT alone showed improved effect on tumor growth. The mice with combined therapy showed no sign of tumor regrowth and the burned skin was also healed (the arrow indicates the healed site).

Compared to GO, RGO exhibited higher intrinsic thermal conductivity and NIR absorbance. Therefore, RGO is favorable for applications in PTT. Compared with PDT or PTT alone, breathe no problem combination of both resulted in a significant cytotoxicity. Psy boy unique approach can effectively improve mild PTT (Figure 7).

Figure 7 Irradiation-activated apoptosis. Notes: (A) Schematic illustration of the sequential irradiation-activated high-performance apoptosis. The efficacy of combined treatment is compared with the additive efficacy of independent PDT and PTT treatments using t-tests with all P-values lower than 0. Reprinted from A multi-synergistic platform for sequential irradiation-activated high-performance apoptotic cancer therapy. Chen ZW, Li ZH, Wang JS, et al.

Breathe no problem system generated cytotoxic singlet oxygen under 630-nm laser irradiation for PDT. Compared with PTT or PDT alone, the combined treatment is shown to be a more efficient means of breathe no problem therapy.

Notes: Reprinted from Biomaterials, 34, Wang YH, Wang HG, Liu DP, Song SY, Wang X, Zhang HJ. Recently, Gollavelli and Ling36 reported a single light-induced photothermal and photodynamic reagent with dual-modal imaging capability. The MFG serves as an excellent luminescence image reagent and Breathe no problem magnetic resonance imaging contrast reagent owing to its fluorescence and superparamagnetic properties.

Graphene-based nanosystems have shown great potential for PDT breathe no problem cancer. However, biosafety of the nanomaterials must be taken into consideration. The toxicity and behavior of graphene-based materials in biological systems have been extensively investigated. Surface modification of graphene has been found to effectively decrease its tsh vivo toxicity.

Toxicity of graphene also depends breathe no problem the chemical structure, charge, size, number of layers, and defects. Other factors include administration route, dose, time of exposure, as well as the cell types. Thus, more systematic investigations need to breathe no problem carried out to fully understand the biological effects and to address safety concerns before implementation of clinical applications of any graphene-based materials.

Graphene-based nanomaterials, mainly GO, have been extensively studied as an effective nanovehicle utilizing both organic PSs and inorganic nanoparticles such as TiO2 and ZnO. The unique physicochemical properties of graphene-based nanomaterials allow for efficient loading via both physical absorptions and chemical conjugations.

Various strategies have been developed for GO-based PS delivery systems including targeted, target-activatable, and photothermally enhanced PDT.

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16.03.2021 in 02:34 Garn:
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