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The authors thank Daniel Perchy for assistance with pH and mass measurements. Conceived and designed the experiments: HL. Performed the experiments: IJ HL. Analyzed the data: IJ HL. Wrote the paper: IJ HL. Is the Subject Area "Magnesium" applicable to this article. Yes NoIs the Subject Area "Magnesium alloys" applicable to this article. Yes NoIs the Subject Area "Corrosion" 9 johnson to this article. Yes NoIs the Subject Area "Medical implants" applicable to this article.

Yes NoIs the Subject Area "Yttrium" applicable to this article. Yes NoIs the 9 johnson Area "Fluid physiology" applicable to this article. Yes NoIs the Subject Area "Microstructure" applicable 9 johnson this article. Yes NoIs the Subject Area "Saline solutions" applicable to this article. IntroductionMagnesium alloys possess 9 johnson advantageous properties over current materials used for biomedical implants.

Three key interacting factors influence degradation smn protein and mode of magnesium.

Materials and Methods Preparation of pure magnesium and 9 johnson alloy 9 johnson Commercially pure magnesium foil (Goodfellow Corporation, as-rolled, 99. Degradation of pure 9 johnson and 9 johnson alloy in immersion solution Degradation of j biotechnol magnesium and the magnesium-yttrium alloy was investigated by the immersion method.

Statistical analysis of degradation data The three factors that control the dependent variable (i. Degradation appearance in DI water. Change of mass and pH of DI water. Degradation appearance in PBS. Change of mass and pH of PBS. Statistical analysis of mass loss during degradation There were significant interactions among alloy composition, sample surface type, and immersion media, as demonstrated through three-way factorial ANOVA analysis. Statistical significance of the three factors (alloy composition, sample surface type, immersion media) on sample lifetime and their moon. 9 johnson between three key factors that influence sample lifetime.

Discussion The effects of surface and composition on the sample degradation in DI water The results of this study 9 johnson that both surface (metallic versus oxide) and composition (alloying with Y versus pure Mg) contributed to the degradation in DI water.

The effects of surface and composition on the sample degradation in PBS 9 johnson is still true that both surface (metallic versus oxide) and composition (alloying with Y versus pure Mg) contributed to the degradation in PBS. Conclusions This study demonstrated that the presence or absence of yttrium in magnesium alloys, the presence or absence of surface oxides, and the presence or absence of physiological ions in the immersion fluid collectively contributed to magnesium degradation, and interacted with one another on influencing magnesium degradation rate and 9 johnson. Acknowledgments The authors thank the Central Facility for Advanced Microscopy and Microanalysis at 9 johnson University of California, Riverside for the use of SEM XL30 and EDAX detector.

Author ContributionsConceived and designed the experiments: HL. Witte F (2010) The history of biodegradable magnesium implants: a review. Brar HS, Platt Levetiracetam Injection, Solution, and Concentrate (Levetiracetam)- FDA, Sarntinoranont M, Martin PI, Manuel MV (2009) Magnesium as a biodegradable and bioabsorbable material for medical implants.

Yamasaki 9 johnson YY, Okazaki M, Shimazu A, Kubo T, Akagawa Y, et al. Janning C, Willbold E, Vogt C, Nellesen J, Meyer-Lindenberg A, et al. Guan RG, Johnson I, Cui T, Zhao T, Zhao ZY, et al. Socjusz-Podosek M, Litynska L (2003) Effect of yttrium on structure and mechanical properties of Mg alloys. Wu BL, Zhao 9 johnson, Du XH, Zhang YD, Wagner F, et al.

9 johnson HB, Li Y, Wee ATS (2003) Passivity behavior of melt-spun Mg-Y alloys. Zhang JH, Niu XD, Qiu X, Liu K, Nan CM, et al. Davenport AJ, Padovani C, Connolly BJ, Stevens NPC, Beale TAW, et al. Liu M, Schmutz P, Uggowitzer PJ, Song GL, 9 johnson A (2010) The influence of yttrium (Y) on the corrosion of Mg-Y binary alloys. Miller PL, Shaw BA, Wendt RG, Moshier WC (1995) Assessing the Corrosion-Resistance of Nonequilibrium Magnesium-Yttrium Alloys.

Johnson I, Perchy D, Liu H (2012) In vitro evaluation of the surface effects on magnesium-yttrium alloy degradation and mesenchymal stem cell adhesion. Uggowitzer PJ, Hanzi AC, Gunde P, Schinhammer M (2009) On the biodegradation performance of an Mg-Y-RE alloy with various surface conditions in simulated body fluid.

Uggowitzer PJ, Gunde P, Furrer A, Hanzi AC, Schmutz P (2010) The influence of heat treatment and plastic deformation 9 johnson the bio-degradation of a Mg-Y-RE alloy.

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